Causes and treatment of knee pain

Failure of any part of the locomotor organs, especially the knee, causes disturbances of movement and balance of the body. Pain during movement of the knee joint (during bending, elongation, inward and lateral rotation, rotation, lifting and lowering) can occur in different conditions and under the influence of different factors. The severity of the pain syndrome, as well as its duration, varies depending on the depth of the lesion, the etiology and pathogenesis of the pathology.

Knee pain after exercise

Painful sensations and specific cramps most often occur after physical exercise, trauma or against a background of chronic somatic pathology. After carrying out medical therapy and eliminating the main cause, which is the source of pathology, pain and restriction of movement disappear. Otherwise, the prognosis is not convincing: complete or partial paralysis of the locomotor organs can lead to lifelong disability.

What can hurt?

The anatomical design of the knee joint has its own characteristics, which, with any changes, respond to pain. The knee joint includes the structure of the femur and tibia plus the patella. The marginal shape of each bone is equipped with a condylar, its thickened shape and a certain relief create conditions for ideal biomechanics, stable body balance in a horizontal position, as well as safe movement with joint shock absorption. Bone is strengthened with a special soft tissue plexus.

The muscles, the tendons, which hold the knee joints together, are directed from the sides of the thighs and from the sides of the lower legs. From the side of the thigh there is a thin muscle plus a large adductor, as well as the biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus. The strongest muscle of the articular knee structure is the quadriceps, in turn, it is divided into 4 muscle heads: rectus, lateral area, medial area + mid -width muscle. Sartorian, lean, adductor, biceps femoral, semitendinosus + semimembranous, as well as leg and popliteal triceps muscles are also involved in the creation of the knee joint. Their combined plexus evokes firmness, movement and movement of the lower limbs.

Attention!Forced violation of articulatory gene integrity such as rupture, shock, inflammation, destruction or infection leads to the development of pain syndrome with limited motor function.

In the articulation gene, i. e. the space in the joint consists of supraspinous cartilage tissue, cruciate ligament, menisci, synovial bursa. Blood supply and maintenance of the knee joint is done through many complex plexuses. The sciatic, peroneal, tibial plus peroneal nerves are responsible for the sensitivity of the anterior and medial knees. The posterior part gives sensitivity to the tibial nerve with its branches.

Plexuses of nerves and ducts (pulp and non -pulp nerve fibers) enter the menisci along its peripheral part of the cartilaginous plate and within it. With menisci trauma, acute pain syndrome develops, because menisci are quite sensitive. As the dystrophic process develops in the articulatory genes, the pain increases and becomes permanent, and the organ itself loses its function coupled with the ability to move.

Risk factors and symptoms of concern

Knee pain develops due to certain risk factors that involve special conditions related to the general condition of the body, lifestyle, and harmful environmental factors. The risk group for articulated gene pathology accompanied by pain consists of people with:

  1. genetic abnormalities;
  2. anomalies in the development of cartilage and connective tissue;
  3. patients with pathology of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system;
  4. nerve function;
  5. obesity II, III - IV degrees;
  6. endocrine gland diseases (thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, acomegaly, adrenal dysfunction);
  7. kidney and liver pathology (pyelonephritis, renal failure, urolithiasis, hepatitis B + C);
  8. allergic reactions to various agents;
  9. bronchial asthma;
  10. reactive pathology of the immune system.

The alarming symptom of pathological structure of the knee articular structure is a crackling sound during biomechanical actions such as bending, elongation or rotation. These symptoms indicate joint destruction, i. e. violation of metabolic processes, abrasion of the supraspinous cartilage plate from the distal part of the bone, and thickening of the joint capsule with little production of synovial fluid. Excess weight with excessive pressure on the knee joint or constant motor exploitation of the lower part of the foot gradually destroys the shock-absorbing structure of the locomotor organs, leading to a destructive process.

Knee pain when flexing

The causes of gonarthrosis or pain in the knee joint can be divided into three major groups, namely:

  1. Infectious and inflammatory types.
  2. Traumatic origin.
  3. Degenerative-dystrophic causes.

Gonarthrosis (inflammatory destructive arthrosis) affects 65-70% of patients, out of the total number of patients suffering from joint pathology. Rheumatoid arthritis ranks second after arthrosis and arthritis. The mechanism of pain progression starts from the moment of damage to the periosteal cartilage tissue, ligament plexus, accumulation of fluid in the intra-articular space with leakage to adjacent tissue areas, and also due to decreased synovial lubrication, bone fragments, cartilage tissue, meniscus or body after traumaothers. Acute pain appears after a nerve plexus is pinched as a result of injury or unbalanced physical exercise.

Causes of inflammation

Often, inflammation of the genus artikulatio (unilateral or bilateral) begins as a result of strenuous physical exercise, as well as against the background of other pathologies that cause the deposition of salts in the joints or the cleansing of Ca +cartilage. The latter is the trigger of the inflammatory process in the joints in the lower part of the foot.

Inflammatory diseases, symptoms:

Inflammation of the ligament plexus and muscles of the knee joint (tendonitis) Pathology occurs at a young age (16 - 28 years), as well as in physically active patients at the age of 30-45 years. Athletes often get sick. The pain was acute, with variable exacerbation. With the deterioration of inflammation, it becomes painful. At rest, the legs are not sore, the slightest movement causes a sharp pain that rapidly increases. Limited or partially limited motor function, all depending on the degree of inflammation.
Arthritis of the knee Inflammation of the genus artikuldtio occurs suddenly after trauma, intoxication. Joints increased in volume, hyperemic and edematous skin. Severe pain syndrome. Motor paralysis appears. Microbial infections may be involved in the process. After eliminating the cause, the pain disappears and knee function is restored.
Genus articulated bursitis The list of causes is similar to arthritis. The clinical picture is similar to that of inflammation of the knee joint. Method of treatment: medicine + surgery (bag puncture, pressure during suppuration / destruction).
Inflammation of certain muscle groups of the genus artikuldtio or myositis Vigorous exercise or long hikes cause muscle soreness. Excessive accumulation of lactic acid in muscle tissue causes inflammatory reactions in the muscles of the limbs and especially the knee joints. The volume of motor organs increases visually. On palpation, muscle compaction is felt, the patient responds to the acute pain by trying to remove the doctor’s hand. The general condition of the patient is satisfactory, in some cases the temperature rises locally above the affected tissues and is common throughout the body (up to 38-39 degrees). After drug therapy, the pain disappears, the joints return to function + previous function.

Eliminates the source of pathology through medication or surgical treatment, the functional ability of the knee joint is restored, and acute pain or pain disappears completely. If the inflammatory process has attracted a wider area and the depth of the lesion is large enough, then motor function can be partially restored. In some cases, joint restoration surgery is performed.

The cause of the trauma

Any injury of a mechanical nature can cause gonarthrosis. Contusions, compressions, knee fractures, open or closed injuries, as well as rupture of the meniscus plus bursitis, rupture of ligaments, soft tissue spasms are included in the list of causes of trauma. Chemical and physical exposure can also cause knee pain. This group of causes includes burns, intoxication with toxic substances.

Causes of degenerative-dystrophic nature

There are several factors that can trigger degenerative-dystrophic destructive mechanisms with partial or irreversible processes in the knee, namely: continuous physical activity with weight lifting, excessive sports, injuries of any etiology. And also an inactive lifestyle with improper diet, stressful situations. And finally: the aging of the human body with disruption of the normal functioning of all systems and organs.

Pathology causes deterioration and destruction of the knee joint:

  • Arthritis.
  • Arthrosis.
  • Sclerotherapy of muscles, ligaments, ligaments, bursae.
  • Many osteophytes replace cartilage plates.
  • Meniscopathy.
  • Metabolic diseases.
  • Hormonal system dysfunction.
  • Drunk body with heavy metals.

At the site of the abraded cartilage, a bare zone appears, i. e. the bare bone, which when the joint moves, causes unbearable pain in the knee. After a certain period of time, pointed osteophytes develop in this zone. Gradual deformation of the joint with gonarthrosis leads to changes in the anatomical configuration of the articular structure and partial or complete paralysis of the motor function of the knee (or knee). Symptoms of destructive gonarthrosis are acute pain and persistent knee fractures with soft tissue swelling.

Advice!Degenerative-destructive type gonarthrosis is not treated with folk remedies or individually created drug schemes, but only permanently under the strict guidance of a physician. Self -treatment will result in lifelong disability!

Pathological diagnostics and first aid

The final diagnosis of pathology is carried out at rest. Through laboratory and instrumental studies, the cause of the pain and the biomechanical limitations of the knee were determined. They diagnose individually, as each case of morbidity has its own source + mechanism of development, therefore, not all patients are suitable for the same study.

List of diagnostic steps:

  1. Take general blood and biochemical tests.
  2. General urine analysis (if you suspect pyelonephritis and urolithiasis, other urine tests are recommended).
  3. Perform tests to identify rheumatoid factors.
  4. X-ray of the knee in three projections.
  5. CT plus MRI genus artikuldtio to identify the degree of damage to bone, cartilage, ligament-muscle apparatus.

Patients with gonarthrosis of unknown etiology are advised to consult the following physicians: traumatologist, arthrologist, rheumatologist and endocrinologist. If there is a suspicion of a malignant process in the joint, the patient is referred to an oncologist.

Traumatologists consult with patients with gonarthrosis on X-rays of the knee

First aid for acute pain in the knee joint is provided at home or when injured. Prior to the arrival of the ambulance, the joints must be mobilized, that is, fitted with splints. Further, intramuscular injection with analgesic drugs coupled with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended. Cold compresses should be placed on the inflamed joint and there will be no warming or vasodilating. If the injury is open bleeding, apply a trickle over the knee to stop the bleeding.

Diseases of other organs, as a cause of pain in the knee

Pain and dysfunction of the knee joint are not only caused by inflammation, arthrosis / arthritis or trauma, but equivalent pathological complications. After undergoing full medical therapy, the pain can subside or disappear altogether, all depending on the remission of the somatic illness.

List of diseases of organs and systems that cause pain in the articular structure of the knee:

  • Hepatitis B, C
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Diabetes
  • Urolithiasis
  • Bronchial asthma
  • Crohn's disease
  • Blood diseases
  • Hit

Anamnesis, laboratory and instrumental studies help determine the cause. Each pathology has its own treatment regimen. He was appointed by a doctor after getting the results of research.

Variety of pain

Pain in the defeat of the knee joint is completely different, depending on the cause, localization, soft tissue attraction and microbial infection, as well as the degree of destruction of the joint. By the nature of painful sensations can be: sharp, stitching, painful. By localization: from the inside, outside, front, back of the knee joint, as well as above and below the patella. According to the type of spread: the pain is tightly localized or radiates to the thighs or lower legs. By period: temporary, permanent, variable.

How to get rid of knee pain

Before starting the therapy, the real cause of the pathology is known, after knowing its source, they begin to eliminate it and stabilize the general condition. Therapy consists of a complex of drug treatment, physiotherapy (according to medical indications), exercise therapy, massage and time-tested folk remedies.


All strengths of treatment are aimed at eliminating the cause of the pain, then treating the underlying disease. In parallel, you can use drugs in the form of ointments, gels, local compresses. In the early days of acute pain, it is recommended to give the drug intravenously or intramuscularly. Once it subsides, you can switch to oral administration.

Drugs for the treatment of pathology of the knee joint

The complex of therapeutic measures consists of:

  • Pain in the affected joint.
  • Eliminates knee inflammation.
  • Biomechanical natural restorative measures, i. e. motor function of articulated genes.
  • Pathological treatment that causes pain in the knee (treatment regimen is prescribed by the attending physician or a highly specialized specialist such as an endocrinologist, hepatologist, allergist, rheumatologist, arthrologist, oncologist)
  • Increases endurance.
  • Normalization of metabolism.
  • Hepatoprotectors.
  • Restoration of the periosteal layer of cartilage and normalization of synovial fluid production (use of the latest generation of chondroprotectors, vitamins B and C, D).

Attention!Obese patients are advised to lose extra weight through a special diet prescribed by a dietitian. Everyone, without exception, should reduce the load on the lower part of the foot, working in a gentle mode.

Therapeutic gymnastics and massage

Continuous passive movement of diseased joints and sequence of movements of inflamed organs in 1-1, 5 months will restore the function of the lower limbs. The exercise set is selected by the exercise therapy physician. The massage is performed locally only on the joints of the feet or which are general in nature. The use of warming, anti-inflammatory or analgesic ointments will improve blood circulation and metabolism. The course of the massage procedure depends on the speed of organ recovery. In addition, special diets are used for this activity, excluding fried, fatty, sweet, sour. Nutritionists customize the menu by adding gelatin -rich dishes in the form of fractional foods. All procedures in the complex in one treatment will eliminate pain and paralysis in the knee joint.

Folk remedies

Grandma's technique in the form of folk recipes can be used in parallel with drug therapy. All funds are negotiated with the attending physician and applied directly to the affected joint. The effect of traditional medicine is aimed at relieving pain + edema, as well as warming, which in turn increases the blood supply, dressing, intensively feeding knee pain.

Popular folk remedies:

  1. Bath herbs: celandine, chamomile, mint, wormwood + ginseng root. The ingredients are taken on a spoon, poured with boiling water in a volume of 1 liter, then brewed for 2-3 minutes. At an acceptable temperature, a foot bath is performed.
  2. Compress baking soda: a tablespoon of baking soda for 1 liter of boiling water. After profuse knee lubrication with an enriched cream, the compress is applied overnight.
  3. Compress moonshine and grated potatoes: half a kilo of grated potatoes + 0. 5 moonshine. It is recommended to keep an hour. It is repeated 3-4 times a week until the pain and swelling disappear.
  4. Rub honey: 200g honey + 100ml vodka + 200g grated radish. He insisted for a day. Joint pain rubbed 2-5 times a day.

Patients with increased reactions to certain ingredients or substances should refrain from traditional medicine.


For preventive purposes, so that the lower limbs are healthy until old age, it is recommended to adjust the nutritional diet, be careful when moving, exclude injuries, always exercise, swim, and walk more often in the fresh air. People who have stepped over 45 years are advised to adjust the background of sex hormones, as well as eat foods rich in gelatin. Spa treatments are recommended for all patients with musculoskeletal problems. Once every six months, undergo an examination by the attending physician.

Pain in the knee joint occurs spontaneously, it is the result of an increase and wear of the articular structure, which leads to irreversible consequences. The causes of pathological development can be somatic diseases and pathology of the locomotor system itself. Timely treatment will help avoid consequences.