Osteochondrosis is a disease of the whole organism

Degenerative-dystrophic disease of the spine, or, more simply, osteochondrosis, is not only affecting the increasing number of adult populations on our planet, but also becoming younger. Today, more than 80% of the working age population on our planet is periodically plagued by pain in the spine.

osteochondrosis is a disease of the spine

Osteochondrosis- spinal disease, which results in degenerative-dystrophic damage to the intervertebral disc and underlying bone tissue, accompanied by thickening of the vertebral processes and loss of ligament elasticity along the spine. This leads to aging, dehydration and loss of stability in cartilage tissue.

Osteochondrosis is not only a manifestation of pain in the spine or a disorder of sensitivity in the limbs, but is a disease of the whole organism. And as many studies prove, osteochondrosis has a direct effect on almost all internal organs. For example, disorders of the cervical spine affect the function of the organs of sight, hearing, mental and mental activity. In the thoracic region, they interfere with the work of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract. And degenerative-dystrophic changes in the lumbar spine lead to problemssmall organpelvis, including in the urogenital area and the lower part of the foot. For example, in the lower part of the same leg is accompanied by a variety of pain, muscle spasms, "creeping creeps", numbness in the legs, and subsequently their atrophy. Therefore, early detection and qualified treatment of this pathology is very important. Many people who first face a diagnosis of an intervertebral hernia are faced with the choice of its treatment method. The recommendation for surgical treatment surprised many people, forcing them to seek alternative therapies. Some of them immediately turned to traditional healers, bone healers, others took various medications, others did nothing, holding to the opinion that the disease should be treated when it is of great concern. In this case, there is the expression of a winged neurosurgeon - "walking with a hernia is like walking with a grenade, no one knows when it will explode! " But, unfortunately, surgical treatment, whether neurosurgery or orthopedic, is not a panacea. In many patients, even after surgery, pain in the spine persists, which is associated with the development of cicatricial adhesions, and recurrence often occurs (new exacerbation ("return") of the disease after obvious recovery) - recurrent hernia.

With osteochondrosis, the intervertebral disc is most often affected. This unique cartilage washing machine not only connects our 33 spines to the spine. Its good working condition, mobility, elasticity, resilience, ability to withstand loads directly depends on the condition of the intervertebral disc. They serve as shock absorbers to reduce the load.

Osteochondrosis manifests itself in the first decade of life and, according to observations, in boys more often than in girls.

If you do not address the prevention and treatment of osteochondrosis, the disease will progress, gradually affecting the entire spine, which can eventually lead to herniated discs, pinching of nerve endings and parts of the spinal cord. In severe cases, the consequences of osteochondrosis can be eliminated only with surgical intervention with a long recovery and rehabilitation period.

Types of osteochondrosis

Depending on the part of the spine affected by the disease, the following types of osteochondrosis are distinguished:

  • Cervical osteochondrosisor osteochondrosis of the cervical spine.
  • Osteochondrosis of the chestor osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine.
  • Lumbar osteochondrosisor osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine.
  • Common osteochondrosis, this is when the disease spreads to two or three parts of the spine at the same time.
  • First:the main symptom of osteochondrosis at this stage is instability, which is manifested in early disorders of the vertebral disc. Feeling unwell and uncomfortable.
  • Second:the main symptom of second -degree osteochondrosis is disc protrusion. Destruction of the annulus fibrosus begins, the gap between the vertebrae decreases, pinching of the nerve endings with pain syndrome is possible.
  • Third:at this stage of osteochondrosis, destruction of the ring occurs with the appearance of an intervertebral hernia. The third stage is characterized by significant spinal deformity.
  • Fourth:the last and most severe stage of osteochondrosis. It becomes difficult to move. Any movement leads to acute pain. Periodically, there is an improvement in the condition, and the pain subsides, but this clearly indicates the formation of bone growth. They connect the vertebrae, limiting the ability to move and leading to deformities.

Four stages of osteochondrosis development

Symptoms characteristic of osteochondrosis

Patients suffering from osteochondrosis complain of persistent back pain, which is often accompanied by numbness and pain in the limbs. In the absence of adequate treatment, weight loss and limb atrophy occur. The main symptoms are:

  • persistent back pain, numbness and pain in the limbs;
  • increased pain with sudden movements, physical exercise, weight lifting, coughing and sneezing;
  • decreased range of motion, muscle spasms;
  • with osteochondrosis of the cervical spine: pain in the arms, shoulders, headache; possible development of the so-called vertebral artery syndrome, which consists of the following complaints: noise in the head, dizziness, flashing "flies", colored spots in front of the eyes in combination with a throbbing headache. The cause of vertebral artery syndrome can be its spasm in response to direct irritation of its sympathetic plexus due to bone growth, disc herniation, arthrosis of the intervertebral joint, and reflex reactions due to irritation of any spinal receptors. The presence of vertebral artery syndrome may exacerbate the course of coronary or cardiomuscular pathology, if any;
  • with osteochondrosis of the thoracic spine: pain in the chest (such as "poles" in the chest), in the heart area and other internal organs;
  • with osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral spine: back pain, radiating to the sacrum, lower leg, sometimes to the pelvic organs;
  • damage to nerve roots (with herniated intervertebral disc, bone growth, spondylolisthesis, spondyloarthrosis): shooting pain and impaired sensitivity, hypotrophy, hypotension, congenital muscle weakness, decreased reflexes.

Diagnosis of osteochondrosis

The formation of the initial diagnosis is performed during the initial examination of the patient. Examination is usually performed by a neurologist in connection with a patient’s complaints of local changes, which can manifest themselves as pain, deformity or limited movement. The spine was examined with the patient standing, sitting and lying down, at rest and moving. The extent of spinal lesions is determined by calculating the number of vertebrae from certain anatomical landmarks or according to a special scheme.

When examining the back, note the posture, structural features of the trunk, mark the line of the spinous process (median of the back groove), lower angle of the shoulder blade, apex of the iliac bone, lateral contour of the waist and neck, position of the shoulder belt, deviation of the intergluteal groove from the vertical, protrusion reveals, the prominence of the rotational process pays attention to the relaxation of the muscles located on the side of the spine.

Spinal sensation allows you to add examination data (presence or absence of defects), to determine the localization, degree and nature of pain. During throbbing, muscle tension located on the side of the spine is also observed. most spinal injuries and diseases are accompanied by an increase in muscle tone.

Spinal flexion is used to determine the distance of movement in different parts of the spine.

The main role in the study of the spine is assigned to radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with the help of which the extent of the lesion is determined, the diagnosis is clarified and concrete, and latent pathology is revealed. Diagnostic data allows the attending physician to determine treatment tactics and select the most effective treatment method.

Osteochondrosis of the spine, treatment with movement

Complex conservative treatment includes physiotherapy exercises, physiotherapy, massage, manual therapy, traction (traction) of the spine, reflexology, drug therapy.

Physiotherapy (exercise therapy) - the main method of conservative treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system, is to make a dose load aimed at decompression of nerve roots, correction and strengthening of muscular corsets, increase the volume and development of certain stereotypes of movement and correct body posture, provide muscle ligament flexibilitynecessary, and also to prevent complications. This is achieved with regular training with rehabilitation equipment and joint gymnastics. As a result of exercise, blood circulation is improved, metabolism and nutrition of the intervertebral discs are normalized, intervertebral space is increased, muscular corsets are formed and the load on the spine is reduced.

Physiotherapy is a method of treatment that uses physical factors: low frequency currents, magnetic fields, ultrasound, lasers, and others. It is used to relieve pain, inflammation, recovery after injury and surgery. When using physiotherapy methods, the treatment time for many diseases is shortened, the effectiveness of the use of drugs and the reduction of their dose is increased, there are no side effects inherent in drug treatment.

Massage is a set of methods of action of a mechanical meter in the form of friction, pressure, vibration, performed directly on the surface of the human body by hand. Effectively relieves muscle tension, muscle pain, improves blood circulation, has a tonic effect.

Manual therapy is an individually tailored manual effect on the musculoskeletal system to relieve acute and chronic pain in the spine and joints, as well as to improve range of motion and correct body posture. One of the indications of manual therapy is Visceral manual therapy, which helps restore normal organ movement, improve blood supply, lymph circulation, normalize metabolism, restore immunity, and prevent the occurrence of chronic diseases.

Spinal traction (traction) is an effective method of treating pain syndrome in the spine and joints using individually selected loads using special equipment. The procedure aims to increase the intervertebral space, relieve pain and restore the anatomically correct shape of the spine.

Reflexotherapy - a variety of techniques and methods of therapy to affect the reflexogenic zones of the human body and acupuncture points. The use of reflexology in combination with other methods of therapy increases its effectiveness. Often, reflexology is used for osteochondrosis, accompanied by pain, diseases of the nervous system, sleep disorders, mental imbalances, as well as being overweight and smoking. By acting on certain points, you can make the body harmonious and treat many diseases.

Drug therapy is indicated during the progression of the disease, aimed at relieving pain, relieving inflammatory processes and improving metabolic processes by taking or giving drugs using intramuscular or intravenous injections.

Although each of the above methods is very effective, a lasting therapeutic effect can be obtained only if combined with training on rehabilitation equipment, i. e. while making a full muscular corset.

Recommendations for the prevention and prevention of osteochondrosis

To prevent osteochondrosis or reduce pain, people suffering from this disease are advised to be in a position for as long as possible where the load on the intervertebral disc will be minimal, and at the same time, should stretch the back muscles as often as possible to support metabolic processes around the spine. General recommendations indicate adherence to the rules of a healthy lifestyle, in addition, in each case, the attending physician determines personal recommendations.

For prevention, the following rules must be followed:

  1. Do not overload the spine, do not create conditions conducive to increased pressure on the intervertebral disc:
    • limit vertical loads;
    • do not make sudden movements, especially body circumference when bending;
    • avoid falling and jumping from heights, injuries and spinal bruises;
    • change your body position more often;
    • straight back;
    • try to maintain the natural indentation of the spine: in the supine position, the load on the spine is minimal, but the bed must be semi -rigid (it is better to sleep on orthopedic mattresses and orthopedic pillows); in a sitting position, straighten the back because of the muscle or press it to the back of the chair or chair (the seat should be hard enough, and the back should have a bend in the lumbar region), keep your head straight; in a standing position, replace your legs the more often you lean; getting out of bed or from a chair, as well as lying down and sitting, should be done with your hands without straining or bending the back;
    • before doing physical activity, drinking water and massaging the back, this will circulate the blood, speed up metabolic processes and allow the intervertebral disc to absorb a sufficient amount of moisture;
    • do not lift or hold heavy objects in outstretched arms, to lift the object, squat down, and then stand with it, while the object should be as close as possible to the body;
    • when carrying a weight, try to distribute the load evenly, i. e. , do not carry the bag in one hand, etc. , if you must carry an object in front of you, keep it as close as possible to your body, and while passing it, do not stretch the arms forward, and also used to carry heavy loads, trolleys, bags or suitcases on wheels, backpacks;
    • when performing heavy work related to lifting, moving or carrying weights, use a wide belt or special corset;
    • do not lift loads exceeding 10 kg;
    • while doing any work, try to bend as little as possible and be in a state of bending and disassembling the spine periodically (hanging on a crossbar, stretching with raised arms, lying down);
    • wear comfortable shoes; women should limit walking with high -heeled shoes.
  2. Exercise regularly to strengthen and maintain your corset. Swimming is useful.
  3. Contrast bath, sprinkle the body.
  4. Don't be too cold.
  5. Avoid scandals, stressful situations.
  6. Eat right.
  7. Do not smoke.