Osteoarthritis of the knee

All of the synovial joints affected degenerative-degenerative diseases – arthritis, but some of them are more, others less. Most often affects the osteoarthritis of the knee and the hip joint, because they are not exposed to any significant loads on the joints and knee injuries. If you win, it's the cervix, it is placed on the diagnosis of gonarthrosis (deforming osteoarthritis of the knee). Osteoarthritis of the knee – a disease that often leads to such as the temporary loss of working capacity, and disability. What is gonarthrosis of the knee-joint, for the reasons on the basis of which it develops, and how it manifests itself in this disease and how to treat it – and the subject matter of this article.

Osteoarthritis of the knee

A little bit of terminology

Osteoarthritis – non-inflammatory joint disease that starts with the degenerative processes in the articular cartilage, and then the process that is involved in the joints of the games, matching the bones, the synovial shell, and the muscles that support the joint. The other name of the disease -- osteoarthritis, it also provides an indication of the pathologic process occurring in the bone tissue.

To narrow down the location to the name of the disease, he added, is the name of the body: osteoarthritis of the knee, osteoarthritis of the ankle. As in the later period of the frontier expansion-joint locations, resulting in a marked deformation of the body, osteoarthritis in the knee and other joints of the joints in the so-called strain, abbreviated as DOA. The diagnosis of DOA is the same as osteoarthritis.

That is, gonarthrosis, and as it is still called? Many times, it's the internet, you can find phrases, gonarthrosis, knee, gonarthrosis of the hip. The first is a tautology, the second is a mix of the names of the different diseases of the joints. The fact is that, for convenience, to designate the most common types of arthritis, use of names, all of which provide an indication of the location. Thus, in the first part of the word "gonarthrosis", dating back to the age-old word, which means "knee". That is, gonarthrosis is osteoarthritis of the knee, it can also be used as the name GIVER of the knee joint, osteoarthritis of the knee. And here is the name of the gonarthrosis knee-joint, and levitra are redundant to each other.

The anatomy of the knee joint

In the literature, it is also possible to find references to osteoarthritis, femoro-patellar joint, or patellofemoral syndrome. In order to understand what it is, you need to know about the anatomy of the knee joint. Is a condylar joint:

  • the articular surface of the thigh is convex, and the head;
  • the tibia is a hollow.

In addition to the large tubular bones, in education, in the articulation of the knee, joins a small sesamoid bone known as the knee joint or the patella. On the back surface of the leading edge, it is coupled with the femur. The knee is in Latin, called the patella, and the thigh – from the fémures. That is, if you translate it to brazilian Portuguese, the word femoropatellar, you get a stack trace, such as the femoral artery-the patelamarketing. It is not independent of the joint, and forms an integral part of a complex of the knee joint. The patella remains in the correct position in the system of the ligament, but sometimes it is moved due to trauma, or that initially has a configuration that causes the instability.

The displacement of the instability of the patellar – the two main factors that have lead to the development of the so-called patellofemoral of osteoarthritis. The memorandum also referred to the traumatic damage to the cartilage of the patellar when the beat drops. Professionals often use the term patellofemoral pain is caused because of the mechanism of the development of the clinical picture of this pathology is different from that of the classic, which is typical of osteoarthritis. This disease is treatable, because of the thinning of the cartilage of the (chondromalacia) occurs only in the 3rd stage, and the prognosis was positive. But, in the absence of adequate treatment, the disease comes in gonarthrosis.

The causes of the disease

What is osteoarthritis of the joints of the knee, and what is the reason for your question? One we've named it the trauma, and the instability of the patellar released, patellofemoral syndrome, doctors often see it as a periartroz).

The reasons for osteoarthritis in the knee include the following:

  • the innate weakness of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus, stabilizing the joint of the knee;
  • the pathology of vascular medicine of the lower extremity (varicose veins thrombophlebitis), which has disrupted the blood supply of the knee joint;
  • the prolonged inflammatory process in the joint cavity and periarticular tissues;
  • endocrine diseases, especially diabetes mellitus;
  • an injury to the lower extremities.

With the win, the joints of the knee to the face of the people diagnosed with the HURTS right ankle, coxarthrosis, flat feet. When the removal of the ankle or the hip joints, the violation of a reference to the function of the foot and increase the burden on the knee joints. With increasing age, the frequency of new cases of arthrosis of the joints of the knee is increased. This is related to the slowing down of the metabolism, in the processes of tissue regeneration, circulation, and the natural wear and tear of the fabric of the articular cartilage, changes in the levels of the hormone.

Gonarthrosis at early age, are more likely to develop in people with a hereditary predisposition, genetic defects of the connective tissue. Also it is affected by both athletes and people who work in heavy physical labor, with the burden on the legs. A lot affect knee joint to lose weight.

The symptoms of

The methods for early diagnosis of osteoarthritis

When the arthritis anywhere the symptoms gradually builds up from stage to stage. The 1-phase gonarthrosise the patient is experiencing any discomfort:

  • your feet will quickly get tired;
  • at the beginning of the motion is short, the pain, the tightness, the stiffness, but it was about half an hour, all these symptoms disappear;
  • the pain can be renewed after a long load of work, but once you spend a holiday.

At the 2nd stage, a much lower level, to cause pain, and require a longer stay, the way that it was. Because, at this stage, a lot of times the inflamed joint tissues of the shell, the mechanics of the aches and pains of the head, join in inflammatory conditions that occur in the steady state. For synovitis typical of this is the increase in the knee due to the accumulation of inflammatory effusion in the joint cavity, and skin, many times in a blush, it gets hot to the touch.

At an early stage of contractures (limitation of movement of the joint), are related, mainly, with a feeling of painful when it moves, and then, as a disease of the joint of the knee progresses, the cp becomes strong. The grow bone spurs that block the motion are shortened, and they lose the elasticity of the ligaments, weakening the muscles, reduces the production of the intra-joint lubrication – oxygen in the synovial fluid. In step 3, the amplitude of the movements greatly reduced, in some patients they may be able to show the balance of the movement of the knee joint. Finally, in the later stage of the articulation is distorted due to bony growths of the foot to the knee is to bow (the X-pro form or in the form of a strain).

What is osteoarthritis of the joints of the knee, and what are the symptoms that allow to distinguish it from patellofemoral syndrome? The latter is characterized in that:

  • the pain, all of which are located in the front part of the knee may be felt, usually, when you Move, you are strengthened when you squat, and to grow with the chair, and walking under the stairs;
  • swelling in the region of the ball joint;
  • with a limp in the gait;
  • clicks when it moves and clicks, and the pain does not occur at the same time.

Swelling of the knee joint, the gear shift, the pain that is caused and characterized for gonarthrosis, but the pain is felt in the depth of the joint, more often than not suffer from their side. The movement is often accompanied by aches and pains, and crepitus. In order to determine with precision the location of the process, it is necessary function tests and x-rays.

The methods for the diagnosis of

The diagnosis of DOA is made after a global search for the patient's care. First of all, the doctor listens to complaints, considers the history, you see, the feet, palpated the joint, it executes a passive motion, and ask the patient to perform a variety of assets. Gonarthrosis is one-sided and bilateral. When a one-sided, with the defeat of the healthy member, as compared with that of the patient. Measure the amount of motion, muscle strength, as measured loops, and hip and legs, and the length of the legs. Because of gonarthrosis accompanied with atrophy of the muscles and ligaments and terrified of walking down the volume, and short-lived.

After the physical examination prescribed in the hardware and in the laboratory:

  • the main method of diagnosis of arthritis, x – rays, and the snapshot is performed by at least 2 of the projections;
  • – CT type radiographic examination, when that happens, the layer-by-layer, with the image of the joint;
  • to evaluate the state of cartilage, the soft tissue, the amount of the intra-articular liquid oxygen, enables the ultra-sound;
  • a very informative method of diagnostics of the magnetic-resonance imaging;
  • the studies are assigned, in order to distinguish the arthrosis, arthritis and other inflammatory diseases.

At the time of diagnosis, and the setting of the grade of gonarthrosis knee joints to rely on the data of the x-rays.

  1. Insignificant, often with irregular narrowing of the joint cleft, early bone spurs, in the form of a little tapering at the edges of the joints of the web-sites.
  2. The closer the light is 50% or greater, multiple bone spurs, and the label of the bone tissue (osteosclerosis) in the places of greatest load. In the middle of the main focuses of the osteosclerosee may experience light – testopodobnymi of the cavity.
  3. The almost total absence of light, expressed in osteosclerosis, hardy, bone spurs, deforming the joint surfaces of the bones, and smoothing out your terrain, the curvature of the axis of the member.


The next question is: what is osteoarthritis of the joints of the knee and how to deal with it? The methods of treatment of this disease are various, it is extremely important to have a holistic approach, combining drug and non-drug therapy. The treatment should be started with load shedding on our knees. For this reason, you have to abandon the run, jumping, weight-lifting, the patient with the excess weight, you should lose weight.

For those whose muscles weakened due to an inactive lifestyle, you may have to move more, but that does not burden the joints of the knee. The shoes should be comfortable to walk on, it is recommended that you use a walking stick, also, orthopedic doctors can pick up the pad for the knee, orthez, and other devices, which allows you to download, and the stabilization of the joint. Necessarily need to stick to the diet.

Medical treatment

The pharmacological treatment of osteoarthritis

Such as explaining and talking points for the arthritis, if it is accompanied by aches and pains? The most likely cut, with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are orally used in the form of creams, gels,. In addition, the prescribing of topical ointments are annoying. The intense inflammatory process that can be shown to be the injection into the joint of the medications, hormonal combined, when combined with local anesthetics. But, this only relieves the symptoms, the go through mini-lectures, with readings.

1-or 2-stages in the treatment of symptomatic't necessarily have to match the duration of the acquisition of chondroprotectors. These drugs slow down the destruction of tissue and cartilage and at an earlier stage, even if they contribute to your recovery. Well to ease the pain and restore the mobility of the intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid.

Of the medicines when you win, also you can be attributed to vasodilators and drugs to improve the microcirculation of the receipt will be shown when a violation of the blood supply to the joint. To relieve muscle spasms, to help relax your muscles. The specific means for the treatment of arthritis, in conjunction with the protective cartilage, a drug to neutralize the activity of a protein that destroys the cartilage tissue.

Non-drug treatment for

Displayed when the gonarthrosise the joints of the knee, and a drug-free treatment. The methods of non-drug therapy include the following:

  • treatment, physical therapy, electrophoresis, ultrasound therapy, magnetic therapy, laser STRINGS, UFO's, and more;
  • applique wax, ozokerite;
  • compresses with dimexide, and medical bile, bischofite;
  • a massage using the influence mainly don't own the joint, and surrounding muscles;
  • chiropractic – pull, or soft reduction, of the joint;
  • Therapy, exercise, exercise therapy. To master all the exercises can be video tutorials, and descriptions that are complex, with a photo, but it is best to start the class, under the supervision of an instructor.

In some of the clinics, passing the test is a novel method of treatment of the therapy with stem cells. It allows you to restore the cartilage tissue, without the need for a rapid intervention.

In the 1 stage of the gonarthrosis is shown in exceptional cases, the conservative treatment 2 can be carried out in the surgery. The most progressive of the operation, when a read:

  • arthroscopic debridment – removal of bone spurs, and dead stages of the cartilage through a small incision;
  • arthroscopic chondroplasty – the "hard" repair of articular cartilage in the joint;
  • arthroplasty-replacement of the artificial joint.

The first two operations are usually performed in the step # 2, create a temporary (1 to 2 years of age. There is shown in the 3-stage osteoarthritis of the knee, it's the only way to avoid a deficiency. Endoscopy, will serve 15 to 20 years, after which it is necessary to repeat the operation.

Gonarthrosis or osteoarthritis of the joints of the knee is one of the three most common types of arthritis. The pain in the knee could indicate not only to the development of osteoarthritis, but is an injury to the ligaments or meniscus, arthritis and a host of other diseases. Therefore, when the alarming symptoms, you should talk to your doctor about being tested.

Often, osteoarthritis of the joints of the knee, progressing slowly increased since the onset of the first symptoms to total loss of the functions of the joint may move in a couple of decades ago. To completely cure gonarthrosis is not possible, but if you start treatment early, the greater the likelihood of halting its development, and hold off on the last stage, which is the cause of the disability.