The most common cause of back pain in the lumbar region: what disease it indicates

causes of back pain

Back problems are very common. According to statistics, more than 30% of the population suffers from pain. About 80% of them suffer from pain that varies throughout adulthood.

Pain in the lumbar region occurs more frequently than in other parts of the spinal space. This is due to the fact that the lower back has the greatest load, the risk of developing pathological processes in this area is higher. Pain in the lumbar region can be associated not only with diseases of the spine, but also with pathology of internal organs. Before treating lower back pain, it is important to know its original nature.

Causes of pain syndrome

90% of lumbar pain is associated with vertebral pathology, both congenital and acquired.

The most common reason is:

  • osteochondrosis of the lumbosacral region;
  • protrusion and intervertebral hernia;
  • spondylosis;
  • spondyloarthrosis.

Congenital anomalies that cause pain:

  • irregular vertebral process;
  • vertebral separation;
  • congenital curvature of the spine.

Neurological causes of lumbar pain:

  • nerve root compression;
  • lumboischialgia (occurs when the sciatic nerve is damaged);
  • multiple sclerosis.

Back pain can be a reflective and symptomatic non-spinal disease:

  • infections of the urinary tract and genitals;
  • kidney disease;
  • nefrolithiasis and urolithiasis (stones in the kidneys and bladder);
  • tumor formation in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • hemorrhoids;
  • neoplasm of the uterus in women;
  • radiculitis;
  • as a complication after a previous viral infection.
why there is back pain in the lumbar region

Sometimes severe back pain in the lumbar region occurs with a background of physiological changes:

  • during menstruation;
  • after giving birth;
  • during pregnancy;
  • as a result of rapid weight gain.

Factors that provoke back pain can be:

  • hypothermia;
  • weakness of the immune system and body against the background of infectious wounds;
  • irregular physical activity;
  • work related to long stay in sitting position (office worker, driver of vehicle);
  • excessive pressure, which causes fractures of the spine, cracks, stretching of the back muscles;
  • power sports (bodybuilding, bodybuilding, shooting);
  • inappropriate diet - lack of vitamins and elements necessary for bone tissue (phosphorus, calcium, fluoride), excessive intake of high-calorie foods;
  • curvature of the spinal space (stoop, kyphosis, scoliosis);
  • depressed state - prolonged nervous tension exacerbates a number of chronic diseases, weakening the body.

Determining the nature of pain

Back pain in the lumbar spine can be different:

  • acute pain (lasts up to one and a half months);
  • subacute (one and a half to three months);
  • chronic (more than three months).

Type of pain:

  • Non-specific - there is no clear localization of pain sensations and the cause of their occurrence.
  • Specific - is a symptom of a specific disease (tumor, hernia, osteoporosis).
how lumbar pain is evident

Acute lower back pain, usually sudden, occurs in the form of "lumbago" lumbar (lumbago). Pain can spread to the back, to the lower legs and other parts of the body, mimicking certain diseases.

Depending on what is causing the pain in the lumbar spine, they may have different properties (stabbing, cutting, pressing, fracture, pain).

At the beginning of the development of pathological processes, pain is often unspeakable. The patient may experience discomfort in the affected area, a feeling of "goose bumps" on the skin. Gradually, the symptoms begin to increase and become more pronounced.

Watch out!It is very important not to delay a visit to a specialist. If not treated in a timely manner, the pain will be more intense, in the future there may be signs of dysfunction of other organs and systems (sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence, paresis, restriction of motor activity).

Effective treatment

Before starting treatment for back pain, you should consult a vertebrologist or neurologist. He will try to find out the cause of the pain, prescribe the necessary research. If necessary, she will send for consultation with other specialists (gastroenterologist, gynecologist, urologist).

In addition to interviewing patients and visual examinations, it is recommended to make a diagnosis using instrumental methods:

  • radiography;
  • CT;
  • MRI;
  • electromelography.

In addition, blood and urine tests in general, material sampling for histological examination may be required.

The following conditions require immediate medical attention:

  • for the first time and suddenly appeared severe pain in the lower back;
  • irradiation of pain in lower extremities and legs, combination of pain with numbness in thighs, feet;
  • history of trauma;
  • urinary and fecal incontinence;
  • duration of pain for more than 3 days;
  • presence of oncological diseases;
  • loss of appetite and dramatic weight loss;
  • chills and fever;
  • presence of bacterial infection;
  • inability to self-serve due to pain.

In most cases, pain in the lumbar spine occurs due to damage to the vertebral structure, it is necessary to eliminate the cause. The treatment approach must be comprehensive.


For back pain, medication is first used to relieve it. Doctors prescribe several groups of drugs in the form of injections, tablets, ointments.

Without knowing the cause of the pain, prescribing certain medications (for example, NSAIDs or analgesics) can only make matters worse.

For spinal diseases, it is recommended to use NSAIDs and analgesics to relieve pain, relieve inflammation.

Muscle cramps are relieved with short-term intramuscular or oral muscle relaxation (up to 5 days).

The use of ointments for back pain is effective as an additional treatment for lower back problems. They help reduce pain, relieve inflammation, and have a warming effect. Ointments are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, combination, irritating, chondroprotective. External medications should be prescribed by a physician, based on the therapeutic effect to be achieved.

Corticosteroid injections are sometimes used to relieve very severe pain quickly. The drug is injected directly into the lesion. The course of treatment should not exceed 2-3 injections.

Drug-free therapy

To restore the lower back and strengthen the results of drug therapy, it is recommended to use the following steps:

  • urut;
  • manual therapy;
  • exercise therapy;
  • reflexology;
  • yoga;
  • physiotherapy and other methods of influence.

This method increases the blood supply to the affected area, strengthens muscle and ligament tissue, makes it more elastic, and reduces pain. Any medical procedure cannot be performed independently, without expert supervision. Certain load modes must be observed.

Useful hints


how to get rid of lower back pain
  • In case of back pain, physical activity should be significantly reduced, and it is better to ensure calm during the first 2 days of attack.
  • Prolonged bed rest is not recommended unless there is a fracture, high fever, or worsening symptoms. Moderate activity always benefits the spine.
  • Taking painkillers is better if the pain is unbearable. It is better to protect the gastrointestinal tract as much as possible from the effects of drugs.
  • It is better to sleep in the fetal position, to relieve the load on the lower back, you can put a pillow between your legs.
  • If there is a problem with the lower back, it is recommended to walk as often as possible, doing warm-ups while working, which requires long sitting.

Prevention of lower back pain

Pain is a symptom of impaired bodily function. To avoid problems with the lower back, it is necessary to avoid the occurrence of provoking factors as much as possible.

Precautions include:

  • Regular moderate exercise. Physical education should be given at least half an hour every day. It is useful for doing yoga, swimming, morning exercises.
  • Adhere to drinking rules. You need to drink up to 2 liters of fluid per day. A large number must be in the first half today. After 8 pm, it is better not to drink fluids at all.
  • Eat right. Reduce your intake of fatty and high calorie foods. It is better to use boiled and steamed dishes.
  • At least once a year, routine checkups should be done.
  • Follow the therapy sequence 2 times a year.

Pain in the lumbar spine is a signal that there is a problem in the body. The causes of pain can be many. You can not immediately stop it with pain pills, you need to get help from a specialist and be checked. However, the problem can be hidden not only in the spine, but also the work of other organs and systems. The sooner the cause of the pain is identified and treated, the higher the chance of recovery.