Osteoarthritis: symptoms, treatment,

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative-degenerative disease of the joints, which is characterized by the slow progressive destruction of the intra-articular cartilage. The arthritis includes a group of diseases of the joints, destructive, inflammation-causing in nature, with a wide range of causes and mechanisms are similar to the development.


Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in the world, it occupies a leading position among the men and women with more than 30 years old, and with age the risk of developing the disease increases.

The causes of the pathology.

Osteoarthritis develops as a result of a violation of metabolic processes in the joints, at the end of which the intra-articular of the articular cartilage begins to lose water and becomes non-elastic. Predisposing factors, similar changes in the articular cartilage, can be both internal and external factors:

  • the hormonal changes;
  • the characteristics of age groups;
  • the genetic predisposition;
  • in the rheumatoid arthritis (ra);
  • the excessive stress on the joints;
  • downloaded from injuries and damages – injuries, fractures, severe contusions, rupture of the ligament;
  • changes in the metabolism within the joint, associated with obesity, and diabetes;
  • forum;
  • the bad and the nutrition is out of balance, causing the body receives less calcium, and omega 3 and 6 fats, and protein;
  • the inflammatory process in the joint;
  • the violation of the vascularity of the femoral head disease Pertusa;
  • problems with the clotting of the blood, a hereditary disease;
  • auto-immune diseases – systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis (ra).

Lead to the development of osteoarthritis may also be disease-specific, and that they don't have anything to do with your joints, that is:

  • gonorrhea;
  • again;
  • hyperthyroidism;
  • hashimoto's.

In the at-risk group are people who have to deal with the inevitable, as he constantly SuperCool and experience the greatest burden of fine motor skills – the miners, the blacksmiths, of athletes, porters, and women who are pregnant.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis

The first symptom of osteoarthritis is pain in the lower stress on the joint, which is tight, as it is only the joint, leaving it in peace. Osteoarthritis is characterized by 4 major signs:

  1. The pain – the pain of the osteoarthritis that has some of the characteristics are in stark contrast with the pain from a random injury to the joint or an inflammatory process in it. First of all, attention should be paid to the occurrence of reports of discomfort and pain during the movement as a whole, and the load on the affected joint. It is worthwhile for a person to stop the movement, and to remove the burden, and the pain will soon pass, and that is not the case where an injury or an inflammation of the joints. On the evening of the day on the brink of collapse and the articulation is practically not the cause of the patient's discomfort, a sensation of pain, it is only possible to change the position of the body, but they are also very fast. When the expressed progression of the destructive processes within the joint, both during the night and may experience sharp shooting pain, which over time have become more and more strong, and make the adjustments in life-style. Severe pain that occur when any type of change in weather, the change of the phases of the moon, and to a lesser load.
  2. Crushes – this is the sound that appears as a result of a decline in the smoothness of the rotation of the bone around the joint, which leads to the rubbing of bones with each other, and it is accompanied by the characteristic crunch. To the extent that the progression of the degenerative processes in the joint of the tightening becomes more pronounced, and is accompanied by severe pain.
  3. The limitation of the mobility of the joint in the early phase of the development process of the disease is expressed in the restriction of mobility, but at least the progression of the destruction of the joint from the inside of the patient is more and more difficult to carry out simple actions. Eventually, the affected joint becomes totally unable to move.
  4. The deformation of the joint in the surface of the bone to start growing bone spurs and it builds up oxygen from the synovial fluid. The deformation of the joint as observed in the implementation of a degree of a disease process.

Degenerative processes in the joint are not developed quickly, and the disease is typical in a phase of exacerbation and remission, in which patients are not in a hurry to seek medical attention, thereby contributing to the progression of destructive processes within the joint.

The stage

The stage of progression of the pathological process in the joint, as determined by radiographic examination. The highlight of just 4 of the phase of the ailment.

  1. The first one is characterized by negligible shrinkage to articulate in the slot, with no pathological growths on the bone;
  2. Second, there is a slight narrowing of the joint cracks in the surface of the bone is formed, bone spurs;
  3. The third joint slot is reduced, then, to the surface of the bone, multiple bone spurs, can occur deformation of the joint;
  4. From the fourth to the articular cleft is almost not present, multiple bone spurs, to express the deformation of the joint.

The degree to which

With the win, it is expressed in the form of the degenerative-destructive processes in the joint, with the result that affects the articular cartilage, promotes changes in the capsule and the sheath, the synovial joint, as well as the ligaments and bony structures. Depending on the severity of the manifestations specified in, the destruction is split into the 3 degree of osteoarthritis.

The first level

To express the deformation, or change in the joint, but is interrupted in the composition of the oxygen in the synovial fluid – this leads to a failure of the software to the joints of the tissues of the nutrients, water, and trace elements, resulting in the articular cartilage rapidly, it is not elastic, and are not adapted to the stress. Over time, this leads to inflammation, and is accompanied by pain during movement, and the load on the joint.

At the first level of the arthritis, none of the patients referred to the health service, allowing for the discomfort, the pain, the uncomfortable posture during sleep, the fatigue, the "wrong" way-of-life. At times, the patient may notice a characteristic of the tightening is within the area of the affected joint, at the same time, it is accompanied by a sharp pain, but just discomfort, in which once again no one pays attention to the substance.

If you win, we will accidentally be diagnosed at an early stage, the disease is easily treatable.

The second level

At this stage, the disease is accompanied by processes that are destructive to tissue of the articular cartilage within the joint. On the surface of the hard bone to grow bone spurs, and the more intensive the load is in the area of death, the basis will go to destruction.

When a patient complains of persistent pain, lament, and the shot of the character, and that is to periodically go through and it can last for a very long time, and don't give in to yourself to find out. So, the disease is again in progress. In the midst of this pathological process in the muscles that surround the inflamed joint to gradually lose its function, causing the patient to tire easily, and you can't bear the physical load, that is, without the work, bore all before it. In the second grade of the osteoarthritis, the patient is making progress, gradually, the deformation of the cartilage and the joint.

The third degree

It is all the more difficult. The Intra-articular of the articular cartilage in the affected joint thins out and is hard to destroy, and that's where it is obvious as the deformation and disruption of the functions of the affected limb. Near the articulation of the joints and missty do experience a lack of nutrients and oxygen and, little by little, it is withered, it is accompanied by a marked loss of mobility. If the patient all of the time in agony from the pain, which is further enhanced when trying to change the position of the body, and in the event of a change in the conditions of the weather and the phases of the moon and, little by little, it leads to a complete loss of mental capacity.

Types of arthritis

Depending on what the reason for that is caused by a pathological process inside the joint, stand to win a primary, secondary, and idiopathic.

Primary-develops independent of a disease is high, as a result of being migrated to injury, infection, and the cause of the idiopathic form is not known. In addition to renaming the disease, depending on the cause of the pathological process in distinguishing osteoarthritis at the site of the location of the changes are destructive:

  1. Gonarthrosis the most common type of the disease characterized by the defeat of the joints of the knee. More often than not gonarthrosis identify all people with excess weight, with a chronic disease, in the metabolism of the body, the weaker it can enhance immunity. Osteoarthritis of the knee progresses, a lot of time and eventually leads to a complete loss of function of the motor.
  2. Osteoarthritis of the ankle, the main cause of the development of degenerative processes in the area of the ankle joint are transferred, injuries, sprains, strains, fractures. In some cases, the development of a disease process can result in an autoimmune disease the rheumatoid arthritis (ra). Ankle arthritis, are exposed to the dancers, the women with the high heels, the players.
  3. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is the main cause of the degenerative processes in the sector are congenital abnormalities in the development of the shoulder joint, or an excessive load in an area, for example, when used in conjunction with heavy bags on their shoulders.
  4. Coxarthrosis or hip osteoarthritis, the leading cause of the changes related to age in the tissues of the joint. In the at-risk group, people over the age of 45.
  5. Encountres, or arthrosis of the cervical – causes are an injury to the neck, which can evolve osteocondrose, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle. At the risk of the people who work behind a computer in an office. In addition to the expressed pain and swelling in neck region in a patient are marked either expressed dizziness, depression of consciousness, or of the violation of the memory, and rapid fatigue. The symptoms are due to compression of anterior spinal artery, which makes the brain to reach the nutrients and oxygen supply.
  6. Spondiloarthrosis – a vision of terrible destruction to exposed tissue of the spine, particularly the lumbar region of his head. In the at-risk group of women in period of menopause, as well as the spondiloarthrosis goes against the shortage of female hormones.
  7. Osteoarthritis in fingers – this course will develop the very same reason, spondiloarthrosis.
  8. The polyarthrosis – is characterized by injury to multiple joints and the progressing degenerative process in one of them, when the pathological process involved joints, and muscles around the joint tissue.

The potential for complications

In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis-it will progress, it will spread to other joints, and promote the development of gruzevich projections and the development of the polyarthrosis.

The complications of arthritis, the conditions are that:

  • the destruction of the integrity of the joint;
  • the deformation of the form.
  • the restriction of mobility.
  • the disability of the patient.

All of these complications lead to a significant reduction in the quality of life of the patient, and the membership of the co-morbid conditions, and violations of, the full stop of the patient.

The methods for the diagnosis of

For the diagnosis of the disease, the patient should consult with the traumatologist-speech. In order to differentiate osteoarthritis from other causes of the joints and of the musculoskeletal system is prescribed in the x-rays in 2-dimensions. This study is to determine the accuracy of the processed areas of the fabric adjacent to the struck joint, and the presence of destruction of the bone and joints, osteopenia and expansion.

If necessary, your doctor may also prescribe medications to a patient in a magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, arthroscopy. In some cases, produce a puncture of the joint to withdraw a sample of the oxygen in the synovial fluid.

For the treatment of osteoarthritis

In the treatment of arthritis, it is best to do this in the early stages, so the disease is better to provide a conservative techniques for treatment. It is very important to correctly define the cause of the progressive changes that are destructive to the joint, and at the time of the arrest of these factors.

In the treatment of arthritis, it is carried out in a comprehensive way, and this is how to resolve the inflammatory process, the starting point of pain, relief, syndrome, to stop the progression of the pathological process, and the ability to restore the lost functions of the association. Conservative therapy includes the selection of a drug from the medicines and therapy methods of treatment.

Medical treatment

For the treatment of osteoarthritis in different ways in different places, the location of the pathological process:

  1. The osteoarthritis of the fingers and the palms of your hands on the patient in order to reduce the starting point of the pain syndrome and prescribe an anti-inflammatory non-steroids, in the form of ointments, creams, gels. To prevent the progression of a disease process demonstrates a technique, chondroprotectors. After the excavation of the acute inflammatory process as prescribed massage and physical therapy treatments.
  2. When osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint towards the inside of the joint the patient is introduced to the injection of painkillers and anti-inflammatory agents, non-power tool. Administered by the oral route can be assigned to the antispasmodic medication, which will relax the muscles, and in many to decrease the intensity of the pain. After the excavation of the acute inflammation and pain shown to therapeutic exercise and massage.
  3. Osteoarthritis of the knee – prescribe anti-inflammatory non-steroid topically in the form of tampons, creams, gels. In the context of the affected joint exhibition of the physical therapy methods of therapy.
  4. Osteoarthritis of the hip, in the area of their own, this leads to pads with an ointment or a gel to that of a group of NSAIDS, and the inside of the joint, introducing the analgesic injection.
  5. Osteoarthritis of the knee in the area of death, it is applied to an ointment, and a gel with an analgesic effect, and then to decrease the pain and the inflammation shown physical therapy methods of treatment.
  6. Ankle osteoarthritis – the patient is recommended bed rest, strict, with a maximum of peace in the affected joint. To the extent that the sending of an acute inflammatory process is attributed to physical therapy, to swimming, to massage.

Physical therapy

Effectiveness of physical therapy methods that could be used, with different degrees of severity of osteoarthritis are:

Physical therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis
  • The shock-wave treatment, which effectively eliminates the difficulties in the treatment of bone spurs, thus eliminating the pain and limited mobility of the joint;
  • The stimulation of the muscles surrounding the affected joint, the current procedure is very effective for patients with a pronounced limp, a paragraph, and it helps to improve the circulation of blood in the joint, accelerating regenerative processes, and improve muscle tone;
  • The participants in the cavity of the affected joint is introduced into the mixture of the gas and, making the patient, reduces pain, normalizes the mobility of the joint will disappear and the signs of inflammation. For maximum effect, the ozone is carried out in a foreign exchange;
  • Phonophoresis – the impact on the affected area ultrasound waves with use of the drug. In this way, the use of the drug is much more effective, as well as the ultrasound waves reach the drug directly into the nursery from the center.

In addition, the physical therapy treatment will include therapy, exercise, massage, chiropractic, mechanotherapy.


The diet, when you win, you must be the most well-balanced and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, and trace elements. It is recommended to include in diet-fresh fish, vegetable oils, cheese, dairy products, meat, fresh vegetables and fruits.

A diet should not rule out the flour in the products, and the "faster" the carbohydrate, chocolate, coffee, alcohol, and swine's flesh, and fatty and salty foods.

Surgical treatment

If the conservative treatment did not lead to an expected result or a win, have been diagnosed at the stage of implementation, when the expressed by degenerative changes in the joint with the express limitations in mobility, then the patient is prescribed in the operating of the action.

Surgical treatment for arthritis is carried out in a variety of ways.

  1. The puncture of the affected joint – this is a method that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. On the day of his retirement, for a sample of the oxygen in the joint fluid helps to determine, with precision, the nature and origin of the disease, and to take an efficient medicine. During the operation, while the punch into the cavity to articulate, introduce, systemic corticosteroids, and a variety of anti-inflammatory properties, it immediately soothes the pain and relieves the stress on the joints.
  2. Arthroscopy – the joint cavity is entered with the arthroscope, for an in-depth study of the joint from the inside to the outside. During the surgery, the doctor may remove tumors on the bones, and a variety of cancers.
  3. Osteotomy – in the process of the first bone of the joint, a little bit of adjustment of any special tools and shall be fixed in the correct position, which makes it possible not only to restore physical function, but also to rid the patient of discomfort and pain.
  4. The prosthesis of the hip – the ruins of the joint is removed and in its place establish a new procedure of high-grade material, which is completely take over the function of the joint, providing a full mobility of the members, and to rid the patient of pain.


The prevention of arthritis, is a comprehensive campaign to:

  • the healthy and active life style;
  • rational and healthy diet;
  • with the exception of the bad ones.
  • the prevention of injury and damage to the joints;
  • timely treatment of inflammatory processes.

The people in the at-risk group should be particularly careful in regards to the minor changes in the work of the joints, and when you are in pain, popping, and creaking of the immediately in contact with the traumatologist-speech.